Ár nGníomhaíochtaí: / Our
Activities:
STAIR
HISTORY
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CUMANN CARAD NA GAEILGE
The Philo-Celtic Society

STAIR CHUMANN CARAD NA GAEILGE

Réamhrá:  Tá eagraíochtaí agus daoine iontacha le fáil atá
díograiseach i réimsí eile chultúr na nGael, mar an rince agus an ceol.  
Tá sár-mheas againn orthu agus molaimid a n-obair ar son na healíon
sin.  I dtréimhsí eile ár staire, rinneamar iarracht a bheith gníomhach i
ngnéithe éagsúlachta eile ár gcultúir seachas an Ghaeilge, gach aon
rud do gach aon duine, go dtí nach raibh an Ghaeilge tábhachtach ar
bith do chuid is mó ár mballraíochta.   Sa chaoi sin, rinneamar dearmad
ar ár gcuspóir.  Theip ar ár n-eagraíocht.  Bhíomar ar tí a bheith
múchta go deo.  Ach thosaigh Mícheál Ó Lócháin ár ngníomhaíochtaí i
mBrúiclinn i 1872 chun athbheochan domhanda na Gaeilge a chur ar
bun.  Tugadh an tuiscint sin ó lámh go lámh ón aimsir sin anuas go dtí
ár n-aimsir féin. Agus ó 2004, táimid ag oibriú arís d'athbheochan na
Gaeilge mar an fáth amháin go bhfuil ár n-eagraíocht ann.        


Tá breis le fáil faoi Mhícheál Ó Lócháin ag
Ár mBunaitheoir, agus seo
daoibh achoimre stair ár gCumainn:

1836 - "Is i gCurrach Doire, Baile an Mhuillinn, Contae na Gaillimhe, sa
bhliain 1836 a rugadh Mícheál Ó Lócháin... De mhuintir Oisín (Hession)
ó Gharraí Mór an tSléibhe i gContae Mhaigh Eo ab ea a mháthair agus
dar leis, ní raibh aon Bhéarla aici."   (
Mícheál Ó Lócháin agus AN
GAODHAL
le Fionnuala Uí Fhlannagáin, An Clóchomhar Teo., Éire,
1990, Leathanaigh 11-13)  

1836-1854 - "Rugadh an Lóchánach i 1836, agus bhí sé ag freastal ar
scoil sa cheantar go dtí 1854."  Freisin:  "...Seans ... go ndeachaigh Ó
Lócháin chuig ceann de scoileanna neamhspleácha Mhic Héil, mar sa
bhliain 1890 luann sé conas mar a stiúrtaí foghlaim an Teagasc
Críostaí (a scríobhadh le Mac Héil) le linn dó a bheith ar scoil...'It is the
first Irish book we ever read...' "  (
Mícheál Ó Lócháin agus AN
GAODHAL
le Fionnuala Uí Fhlannagáin, An Clóchomhar Teo., Éire,
1990, Leathanaigh 11-13)  

1870 - Deirtear go bhfuair Ó Lócháin a chéad phost i Meiriceá sa
bhliain seo, mar mhúinteoir scoile.  (
Mícheál Ó Lócháin agus AN
GAODHAL
le Fionnuala Uí Fhlannagáin, An Clóchomhar Teo., Baile
Átha Cliath, 1990, L. 14)  

Earrach 1872 - D'fhoilsigh
The Irish World (ceann desna nuachtáin
Ghael-Mheiriceánacha i Nua Eabhrac) litreacha scríofa le Mícheál Ó
Lócháin faoin ainm cleite 'Gael' ag tagairt "... the neglect to cultivate
the National tongue ... suggesting the necessity of preserving the Irish
language in order to preserve Irish nationality..."  Mhol sé ranganna
agus cumainn Ghaeilge a chur ar bun chun an fhadhb seo a réitiú.  
("'An Gaodhal' i Meiriceá" le Breandán Ó Buachalla sa leabhar
Go
Meiriceá Siar
, eagartha le Stíofán Ó hAnnracháin. Baile Átha Cliath, An
Clóchomhar Teo., L. 38)  

Fómhar 1872 - Tosaíonn Mícheál Ó Lócháin an chéad "Philo-Celtic
Class" (.i. rang teagaisc na Gaeilge) do dhaoine fásta ag scoil Our
Lady Of Victory, 583 Throop Avenue, Brooklyn, a raibh sé ina
phríomhoide.  (Foinse:  
Go Meiriceá Siar, eagartha le Stíofán Ó
hAnnrachán, An Clóchomhar Teoranta, 1979, L. 38)  Is í "grá na
Gaeilge" an chiall do "Philo-Celtic."   Tá sé seo roimh a bhí an Cumann
ann go foirmiúil.

1873 - Ach spreagann sé seo eagrú an chéad "Philo-Celtic Society" go
foirmiúil - Cumann Carad na Gaeilge Bhoston.

1874 - Eagraíonn Mícheál Ó Lócháin agus a chairde go foirmiúil an
dara "Philo-Celtic Society"  - Cumann Carad na Gaeilge Bhrúiclinn.

1878 -  Cónaíonn cuid mhaith na mball Bhrúiclinn i Manhattan.  
Eagraíonn siad go foirmiúil an triú "Philo-Celtic Society"  - Cumann
Carad na Gaeilge Nua Eabhraic.  Ag an am seo, níl Brooklyn sa
chathair New York.  Tagaimid anuas go díreach ó Chumann Carad na
Gaeilge Nua Eabhraic, agus tagann Cumann Carad na Gaeilge Nua
Eabhraic go díreach as Cumann Carad na Gaeilge Bhrúiclinn. (Foinse:
Mícheál Ó Lócháin Agus An Gaodhal le Fionnuala Uí Fhlannagáin, An
Clóchomhar Teoranta, 1990, L. 65)  

1873-1881  -  Tagann a lán daoine isteach sna cumainn "Philo-Celtic"
nach bhfuil suim acu sa teanga.  Shíl Ó Lócháin go raibh a chuspóir léir
i n-ainmneacha an Chumainn (.i. Cumann Carad na Gaeilge agus
'Philo-Celtic' nó 'grá na Gaeilge'), ach níor fhíor dó.  

1881  -  Tionscnaíonn Ó Lócháin "An Gaodhal" (iris dhátheangach
mhíosúil an Chumainn) chun athbheochan na Gaeilge a chur ar
aghaidh agus a shoiléiriú gur bhunaigh sé "Philo-Celtic" d'athbheochan
na Gaeilge.  Ach bhí an capall as an scioból cheana féin.  

1878 - 1899 - fairsingiú 7 scaipeadh na gCumann "Philo-Celtic" ar fud
Mheiriceá. Ainm eile donár ranganna ná "The Gaelic League".  Mar a
fheicimid in "An Gaodhal", leanann fadhbanna ag Ó Lócháin le daoine,
craobhacha, agus cumainn "Philo-Celtic" a thugann mórlach a spéise
do ghníomhaíochtaí sóisialta cultúrtha nach mbaineann leis an teanga.


1891 - cuairt Dhubhghlas de hÍde ar Chumann Carad na Gaeilge Nua
Eabhraic agus ar ár ranganna

1893 - Bunaíonn Dubhghlas de hÍde Conradh na Gaeilge i nÉirinn ag
baint áise as ár gCumann agus ár ranganna mar shamhail.

1899  - bás Uí Lócháin, 10 Eanáir 1899.  Cuireadh i Reilig Na Croise
Naofa é.

1904 - scor an chéad "An Gaodhal"

1904-1945 - meath 7 múchadh na gCumann "Philo-Celtic" ach i Nua
Eabhrac

am éigin roimh 1945 - cumasc Bhrúiclinn 7 Mhanhattan i gCumann
Carad Na Gaeilge Nua Eabhraic.  (An ndeachaigh Brooklyn as gnó
agus an ndeachaigh a bhaill go Nua Eabhrac?)

1940í - 1950í - Tá ár gcairde Séamus Ó Maoláin, Seosamh Ó
hAileagáin, 7 Stan Ó Faoláin (gach ceann acu ar ball ina bhall de Scoil
Ghaeilge Ghearóid Tóibín) gníomhach i "New York Philo-Celtic".  Tá
Gaeilge á múineadh fós ach caitheann gníomhaíochtaí eile am agus
achmhainní an Chumainn.   

1960í - 1970í -  meath agus ansin codladh.  Tá suim is mó ár mball i
ngnéithe eile cultúrtha na hÉireann, ní sa teanga.  Ní íocadh dleacht do
Council Of Gaelic Societies (nó do Chonradh na Gaeilge?) ó 1976 (mo
nótaí ó 9/22/93)  

1982-1984 - "An Gael" (iris ráithiúil as Sacsbhéarla de ghnáth) ag The
Irish Arts Center i Manhattan

12 Bealtaine 1993 - 1994  -  Déanann Séamus Ó Maoláin iarracht ar
an gCumann a atheagrú.  Earcaíonn Séamus a chairde ó Scoil
Ghaeilge Ghearóid Tóibín cabhair a thabhairt dó.  Tá Seosamh Ó
hAileagáin, Pam Tangredi, Gearóid Ó Ceallaigh, Conor Ó Ceallaigh,
Máire Ní Cheallaigh, Caitlín Ní Chuinn Bean Uí Lang, Peadar
Chojnowski, agus Aindí Ó Conlain (gach ceann acu ina múinteoirí nó
scoláirí ag Scoil Ghaeilge Ghearóid Tóibín) i measc na mball nua.  Tá
Stan Ó Faoláin (múinteoir ag Scoil Ghaeilge Ghearóid Tóibín) ina bhall
fós ach tá na cruinnithe i Mineola ró-fhada uaidh. (Bhí cónaí ar Stan i
mBay Shore, Nua Eabhac.)  Is mionlach iad seo i measc daoine eile
nach bhfuil aon suim acu sa teanga.  Is deacair é a chreideamh, ach
níor cuireadh aon bhéim ar bith ar an dteanga agus níor mhúin
Cumann Carad na Gaeilge an teanga sa tréimhse seo.

1994 (nó 1995?) - Theip ar iarracht Shéamuis.  

7 Deireadh Fómhair 2004 -  atheagrú Chumann Carad na Gaeilge.  
Ainmníonn Gearóid Ó Ceallaigh agus glacann Pam Tangredi na baill
nua seo:  Réamonn Ó Cléirigh, Pádraig Ó Clúmháin, Séamas Ó
Neachtain, Máiréad Tillman, Tomás Muench, Lugh de Paor, Máiréad
Perron, agus Brian DeVale.  

Deireadh Fómhair 7 Samhain 2004 - Aontaímid dul ar ais go
bun-chuspóirí ár gCumainn mar a mhínigh Mícheál Ó Lócháin iad idir
1872 agus a bhás i 1899.  Bhain na cuspóirí sin leis an teanga amháin.

15 Nollaig 2004 - deimhniú agus ath-abairt ár gcuspóirí i gcruth soléir,
sainiúil, agus cinnte chun fadhbanna ár staire a sheachaint, mar seo
leanas:

"Beidh na cuspóirí seo ag ár gCumann:

1) tacaíocht, neartú, cothú, cleachtadh, craobhscaoileadh, fairsingiú,
múineadh agus athbheochan na Gaeilge mar theanga bheo i measc
Chlann na nGael agus charad na nGael, i Meiriceá agus ar fud an
domhain;

2) athbheochan agus aththionscnamh na Gaeilge mar theanga
labhartha bheo na hÉireann le Sacsbhéarla mar thionlacan."


Do bhliana eile:

1940í

1957

1959-1969

1960í-1970í

2005

2006

2007
 
HISTORY OF THE PHILO-CELTIC SOCIETY

Introduction:  There are organizations and people to be found who are
dedicated to other areas of Gaelic culture, such as dance and music.  
We have great respect for them and we praise their work on behalf of
those arts.  At other periods of our history, we tried to be active in
various other aspects of our culture besides the Irish language, all
things for all people, until the Irish language wasn't important at all to
most of our membership.  In that way, we forgot our purpose.  Our
organization failed.  We were on the brink of going out of existence
forever.  But Mícheál Ó Lócháin started our activities in Brooklyn in
1872 in order to establish a worldwide renaissance of the Irish
language. That understanding was handed down from hand to hand
until our own time.  And since 2004, we are again working for the
renaissance of the Irish language as the sole reason why our
organization exists.  

There is more to be found about Mícheál Ó Lócháin at
Our Founder,
and here's a summary of the history of our Society:

1836 - "It's in the townland of Currach Doire, Milltown, Co. Galway that
Mícheál Ó Lócháin was born in 1836...  His mother was of the family of
Oisín (Hession) from Garraí Mór an tSléibhe in Co. Mayo and according
to him, she had no English."  (translated from
Mícheál Ó Lócháin agus
AN GAODHAL
by Fionnuala Uí Fhlannagáin, An Clóchomhar Teo., Éire,
1990, pages 11-13)

1836-1854 - "Ó Lócháin was born in 1836, and he attended school in
the district until 1854."  Also:  "...it's a chance that Ó Lócháin went to
one of Mac Héil's independent schools, given how the learning of
Teagasc Críostaí (which was written by McHale) was conducted during
his time at school..."It is the first Irish book we ever read..." (translated
from
Mícheál Ó Lócháin agus AN GAODHAL by Fionnuala Uí
Fhlannagáin, An Clóchomhar Teo., Éire, 1990, pages 11-13).  


1870 - It's said that Ó Lócháin got his first job in America in this year, as
a school teacher.  (translated from
Mícheál Ó Lócháin agus AN
GAODHAL
by Fionnuala Uí Fhlannagáin, An Clóchomhar Teo., Dublin,
1990, page 14).  

Spring 1872 -
The Irish World (one of the Irish-American newspapers in
New York) published letters written by Mícheál Ó Lócháin under the pen
name 'Gael' referencing "...the neglect to cultivate the National tongue
... suggesting the necessity of preserving the Irish language in order to
preserve Irish nationality..."   He recommended establishing classes
and Irish language organizations to solve this problem.  ("'An Gaodhal' i
Meiriceá" by Breandán Ó Buachalla in the book
Go Meiriceá Siar,
edited by Stíofán Ó hAnnracháin. Dublin, An Clóchomhar Teo., p. 38)   


Fall 1872 - Mícheál Ó Lócháin starts the first "Philo-Celtic class" (an
Irish language instruction class) for adults at Our Lady Of Victory
School, 583 Throop Avenue, Brooklyn, where he is principal.  (Source:  
Go Meiriceá Siar, edited by Stíofán Ó hAnnrachán, An Clóchomhar
Teoranta, 1979, p. 38)   For Irish in America in this period, 'Philo-Celtic'
means "love of the Irish language."  This is before the Society exists in
a formal manner.

1873 - But this encourages the formal organization of the first
Philo-Celtic Society - The Boston Philo-Celtic Society.

1874 - Mícheál Ó Lócháin and his friends formally organize the second
Philo-Celtic Society  - The Brooklyn Philo-Celtic Society.

1878 -  A good number of the Brooklyn members live in Manhattan.
They formally organize the third Philo-Celtic Society - The New York
Philo-Celtic Society.  At this time, Brooklyn is not in the City Of New
York.  We descend directly from The New York Philo-Celtic Society and
The New York Philo-Celtic Society comes directly out of The Brooklyn
Philo-Celtic Society. (Source:
Mícheál Ó Lócháin Agus An Gaodhal le
Fionnuala Uí Fhlannagáin, An Clóchomhar Teoranta, 1990, p. 65)


1873-1881  -  Many people join the Philo-Celtic societies who don't
have interest in the language.  Ó Lócháin thought that his objective was
clear in the names of the Society (i.e., Cumann Carad na Gaeilge and
"Philo-Celtic" or 'love of the Irish language'), but he was wrong.

1881  -  Ó Lócháin initiates "An Gaodhal" (the Society's bi-lingual
monthly magazine) to advance the renaissance of the Irish language
and to clarify that he founded "Philo-Celtic" for the renaissance of the
Irish language.  But the horse was already out of the barn.  

1878 - 1899 - expansion and growth of Philo-Celtic Societies
throughout America.  Another name for our classes is "The Gaelic
League".  As we see in "An Gaodhal", Ó Lócháin continues to have
problems with people, branches, and "Philo-Celtic" societies who give
most of their interest to social and cultural activities that don't relate to
the language.  

1891 - Douglas Hyde's visit to New York Philo-Celtic Society and to our
classes

1893 - Douglas Hyde founds The Gaelic League in Ireland using our
Society and our classes as a model  

1899 - death of Ó Lócháin, January 10, 1899.  He was buried in Holy
Cross Cemetery.

1904 - end of the first "An Gaodhal"

1904-1945 - decline and extinguishing of the Philo-Celtic Societies
except in New York

sometime before 1945 - merger of Brooklyn & Manhattan in New York
Philo-Celtic Society (Did Brooklyn go out of business and did its
members go to New York?)

1940s-1950s - Our friends Jim Mullan, Joe Halligan, and Stan Whelan
(each eventually a member of The Gerry Tobin Irish Language School)
are active in the New York Philo-Celtic.  Irish is still being taught but
other activities expend time and resources of the Society.


1960s - 1970s - decline and then dormancy.  Most of the interest of our
members is in other cultural aspects of Ireland, not in the language.  
Dues are unpaid to Council Of Gaelic Societies (or Conradh na
Gaeilge?) since 1976 (my notes from 9/22/93).    

1982-1984 - "The Gael" (quarterly magazine usually using English) at
The Irish Arts Center in Manhattan

May 12, 1993 - 1994 - Séamus Ó Maoláin attempts to re-organize the
Society.  Séamus recruits his friends from the Gerry Tobin Irish
Language School to help him.  Joe Halligan, Pam Tangredi, Jerry Kelly,
Conor Kelly, Maura Kelly, Caitlin Quinn-Lang, Peadar Chojnowski, and
Andy Conlon (each one of them teachers or students at the Gerry
Tobin Irish Language School) are among the new members.  Stan
Whelan (teacher at The Gerry Tobin School) is still a member but the
meetings in Mineola are too far away.  (Stan lived in Bay Shore, New
York.)   These Irish speakers are a minority amongst others who have
no interest in the language.  It's hard to believe, but no emphasis was
put on the language whatsoever and The Society Of Friends Of The
Irish Language did not teach the Irish language in this period.


1994 (or 1995?) Séamus' attempt fails.

October 7, 2004 - reorganization of The Philo-Celtic Society.  Gearóid
Ó Ceallaigh nominates and Pam Tangredi accepts these new members:
 Réamonn Ó Cléirigh, Pádraig Ó Clúmháin, Séamas Ó Neachtain,
Máiréad Tillman, Tomás Muench, Lugh de Paor, Máiréad Perron, and
Brian DeVale.

October & November, 2004 -  We agree to go back to the original goals
of our Society as Mícheál Ó Lócháin explained them between 1872 and
his death in 1899.  Those goals dealt solely with the language.

December 15, 2004 - confirmation and re-statement of our goals in
clear, specific, and certain form to avoid the mistakes of our past, as
follows:

"Our Society shall have these goals:

1) the support, strengthening, promotion, practice, broadcast,
expansion, teaching, and renaissance of the Irish language as a living
language amongst the Children of the Gaeil and friends of the Gaeil, in
America and throughout the world;

2) the renaissance and re-establishment of the Irish language as the
living spoken language of Ireland with English as an accompaniment."


For other years:

1940s

1957

1959-1969

1960s-1970s

2005

2006

2007
Ag obair ar son na Gaeilge ó 1872
Working on behalf of the Irish Language since 1872
Táimid ag cabhrú le
hathbheochan na Gaeilge ar
fud an domhain!!
We're helping with the
renaissance of the Irish
Language throughout the
world!
Athbheochan na Gaeilge! /
Irish Language Renaissance!