Cumann Carad Na Gaeilge / The Philo-Celtic Society
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Before the 1960s, aspiration (aka, lenition) was symbolized by putting a dot over the
consonant.   Since the 1960s, it's been symbolized by putting an h after the consonant.  
Aspiration / Lenition changes the way the consonant is pronounced.   There are a
number of reasons why you aspirate (lenite) the first consonant of a word.  Learn a
few of the most common reasons for now.
Singular Possessive
mo mhac my son
do phoitín your poteen
a chorr his chariot
a caipín her cap
m'úll my apple
d'úll your apple
a úll his apple
a h-úll her apple
Ní, Níor, and Níorbh aspirate the following consonant.
Ní ghlanaim. I clean not.
Níor ghlan mé. I cleaned not.
Níorbh ghlantóir mé. I wasn't a cleaner.
Adjective Preceding The Noun
sean-bhean old woman
droch-phingin bad penny
Use of Certain Prepositions Without the Article 'An' ('the')
ar chaipín on a cap
de charr from a car
ó sholas from a light
Some prepositions don’t aspirate.  For example, i ('in') causes eclipsis.