Text Box: GRAMMATICAL DEFINITIONS
Cumann Carad Na Gaeilge / The Philo-Celtic Society
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verb - action words (run, eat, sleep, work, walk, etc.) and the verb 'to be'

regular verb - a verb which always uses the same root for conjugation (I walk, I walked, I will walk, etc.)

irregular verb - a verb which uses different roots when conjugating (I am, I was, I will be, etc.)

verbal noun - In Irish, we have a kind of word called a 'verbal noun' which can be used to create the equivalent of the English infinitive (for example, 'to read') and the English gerund (for example, 'reading').  The verbal noun for the verb 'read' in Irish is 'léamh.'  To say 'to read,' we pick the appropriate word for 'to' which is 'do' (or its variation 'a'), combine it with 'léamh' and thereby say 'do léamh' or its variation 'a léamh.'  To say the equivalent of 'reading,' we say 'ag léamh' which literally means 'at a read' or 'at reading.'  We call this kind of word a verbal noun because it can be used as both a noun ('I'm going to take my book and have a nice read') or as a verb ('I want to read' and 'I am reading').  Simple.  Easy!

subject - the person, place, or thing doing the action

noun - a person, place, or thing (soldier, John, Atlantic Ocean, hill, rock)

proper noun - the special name of a specific person, place, or thing (John, East Islip, Mount St. Helens)

common noun - any person, place, or thing (a man, my hometown, the volcano)

pronoun - a word used in place of the specific name of a noun:  I, you, he, she, it, we, youse, they, etc.  

possessive pronoun / possessive adjective:  my, your (singular), his/her, its, our, your (plural), their

adjective - describes a noun (big soldier, Tall John,  steep hill, hard rock)

adverb - describes the verb (did well, hit hard, ate quickly, etc.)

preposition - describes the relationship (position) in time or space between persons, places, or things.  For
 example, over, under, around, through, on, from, at, behind, before, etc.

definite article - 'the' as in “the rock”

indefinite article - 'a' as in “a ball”.  We don’t use the indefinite article in Irish.  We just say the noun.

object of the verb (aka, direct object, object of the sentence) - the person, place, or thing TO WHICH the
 action is being done.   (I hit a ball, I ate a cake, He took the car, etc.)

indirect object of the verb - the person, place, or thing TO/FOR WHICH the action is being done.  (I hit him the
ball, He  brought her the car, etc.).  We replace this in Irish with prepositional phrases (to him, for her, etc.).

object of the preposition - the person, place, or thing being placed in relationship/position by the preposition 
(next to a car, to him, around the block, for me, in his house, with us, before 7PM, etc.)

pronouns used as subjects (of the verb/sentence) – She kissed me, You kissed him, He kissed her, etc.) 

pronouns used as objects (of the verb/sentence) – She kissed me, You kissed him, He kissed her, etc.) 

aspiration – putting a buailte (‘hit’) on a consonant or an ‘h’ after a consonant with resulting change in pronunciation.  For example, changing 'cuir' to 'chuir'.  This occurs as a result of specific rules, which you will eventually learn. 

eclipsis – putting certain consonants in front of letters while pronouncing the new (eclipsing) consonant and not
 the original (eclipsed) consonant.  For example, changing 'bord' to 'mbord'.  This occurs as a result of specific rules, which you will eventually learn.